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Author Topic: Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane  (Read 3708 times)
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« on: November 07, 2009, 07:41:20 PM »

Whooping Crane and Sandhill Crane

Zoo Tek Phoenix

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Author : Genki

Category : real birds

Date Added : Nov 7 2009

Updated : N/A

Size : 2.41mb

Compatibility : All Game Versions

Description : Two varieties of cranes for your zoos.

Whooping Crane

The whooping cranes' breeding habitat is the muskeg of the taiga; the only known remaining nesting location is Whooping Crane Summer Range in Wood Buffalo National Park in Alberta, Canada and the surrounding area. With the recent Whooping Crane Eastern Partnership Reintroduction Project, whooping cranes nested naturally for the first time in 100 years in the Necedah National Wildlife Refuge in Central Wisconsin, USA. They nest on the ground, usually on a raised area in a marsh. The female lays 1 or 2 eggs, usually in late-April to mid-May. The blotchy, olive-colored eggs average 2 inches in breadth and 4 inches in length (60 by 100 mm), and weigh about 6.7 oz (190 g). The incubation period is 29-35 days. Both parents brood the young, although the female is more likely to directly tend to the young. Usually no more than one young bird survives in a season. The parents often feed the young for 6-8 months after birth and the terminus of the offspring-parent relationship occurs after about 1 year.

Breeding populations winter along the Gulf coast of Texas, USA near Corpus Christi on the Aransas National Wildlife Refuge, Matagorda Island, Isla San Jose, and portions of the Lamar Peninsula and Welder Point, which is on the east side of San Antonio Bay.

Up to 75% of the nations population pass through Salt Plains National Wildlife Refuge in Oklahoma annually.

The whooping crane is endangered mainly as a result of habitat loss. At one time, the range for these birds extended throughout midwestern North America. In 1941, the wild population consisted of 21 birds. Since then, the population has increased somewhat, largely due to conservation efforts. As of April 2007 there were about 340 whooping cranes living in the wild, and another 145 living in captivity. The whooping crane is still one of the rarest birds in North America. The United States Fish and Wildlife Service confirmed that 266 whooping cranes made the migration to Aransas National Wildlife Refuge in 2007.

These birds forage while walking in shallow water or in fields, sometimes probing with their bills. They are omnivorous and slightly more inclined to animal material than most other cranes. In their Texas wintering grounds, this species feeds on various crustaceans, mollusks, fish (such as eel), berries, small reptiles and aquatic plants. Potential foods of breeding birds in summer include frogs, small rodents, smaller birds, fish, aquatic insects, crayfish, clams, snails, aquatic tubers and, berries. Waste grain, including wheat and barley, is an important food for migratory birds such as the whooping crane.

Sandhill Crane

The Sandhill Crane (Grus canadensis) is a large crane of North America and extreme northeastern Siberia. The common name of this bird references habitat like that at the Platte River, on the edge of Nebraska's Sandhills in the American midwest. This is the most important stopover area for the Lesser Sandhill Crane, Grus (canadensis) canadensis, with up to 450,000 of these birds migrating through annually.

Adults are gray overall; during breeding, the plumage is usually much worn and stained, particularly in the migratory populations, and looks nearly ochre. The sandhill crane has a red forehead, white cheeks and a long dark pointed bill. Its long dark legs trail behind in flight, and the long neck is kept straight in flight. Immature birds have reddish brown upperparts and gray underparts. The sexes look alike. Size varies among the different subspecies. This crane frequently gives a loud trumpeting call that suggests a French-style "r" rolled in the throat, and they can be heard from a long distance.

Mated pairs of cranes engage in "unison calling." The cranes stand close together, calling in a synchronized and complex duet. The female makes two calls for every single call of the male.

The only other large grayish-bodied bird of North America is the Great Blue Heron. This heron is of similar dimensions to the Sandhill Crane and is sometimes mistakenly called a crane, even though it is very different in plumage details and build. Like other herons, it flies with its neck tucked toward the body.

The sandhill crane's large wingspan, which is 6-8 feet when fully grown, makes this a very skilled soaring bird similar in style to hawks and eagles. Utilizing thermals to obtain lift, they can stay aloft for many hours, requiring only occasional flapping of their wings and consequently expending little energy. With migratory flocks containing hundreds of birds, they can create clear outlines of the normally invisible rising columns of air (thermals) that they ride.

Although it is rare, some Sandhill Cranes have been spotted devouring their young. If the mated pair recognizes a weakness in a young bird, they will eat it.[citation needed]

The Sandhill Crane flies south for the winter. In their wintering areas they form flocks of over 10,000 birds. One place to observe this is at Bosque del Apache National Wildlife Refuge, 100 miles south of Albuquerque, New Mexico. Just before Thanksgiving every year there is a Sandhill Crane Festival there. Use a search engine and get the information and go to this natural wonder.

Source: Wikipedia

*Included are both the separate ztds and a combined ztd. If you are using the combined ztd, you will not need to have the individual ztds in your game.

Date Listed : 8 November 2009

* WhoopingCraneSandhill CraneTek.jpg (50.38 KB, 295x400 - viewed 579 times.)
« Last Edit: May 12, 2010, 02:09:50 AM by Jay » Logged
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« Reply #1 on: November 09, 2009, 10:06:24 PM »

Additional info:

File contains single ztds and a combined ztd
Follow the links for Suitability Guides:
Sandhill Crane           gcSandhillCrane.ztd                  uca: 8B4B93F2 dated 20 August 2009
Whooping Crane        gcWhoopingCrane.ztd               uca: 8AC4A637 dated 17 August 2009

Combined gcWhooping_and_Sandhill_Crane.ztd
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